Provide a classmate review on their discussion topic :
Simulator transfer of training (ToT) is a term used to describe to what extent a skill learned in a training device can be applied in the actual aircraft without requiring additional airborne training. Controlled experiments can actually measure ToT as a numerical value. For instance, a ToT of 0.5 means that for every hour spent in a simulation device, one-half hour of training in the aircraft can be eliminated, i.e., 50% of the simulator training transfers to the aircraft. A positive ToT equates to monetary savings on fuel and instructor hours, as well as wear and tear on the aircraft. The FAA and Part 121 carriers in the US (and most nations) operate on the assumption that the multi-million dollar Class C/D simulators used for pilot training have a ToT of very close to 1.0, meaning no additional training is required in the aircraft. This is why the FAA allows a new First Officer to fly a revenue flight as his or her first flight in that aircraft, though under the supervision of an instructor Captain.
However, studies have shown that even very basic simulation devices can also lead to a high transfer of training of both technical and CRM skills. Other studies indicate that motion or high-resolution visual displays may not be necessary for high ToT.
This module week, you will discuss whether or not full motion, high fidelity simulators should continue to be required to train airline pilots, as is the current situation. Could simpler/cheaper Flight Training Devices be used instead? Can manual flying procedures such as instrument approaches be effectively taught in BATDs or AATDs (see FAA Advisory Circular AC 61-136A – PDF)?
What about CRM? Can CRM skills be taught, practiced, and evaluated in a simulator that does not have full motion or high-res visuals? Does the specific skill being taught affect the outcome?
Support your position with more than just opinion or by stating, “motion makes a sim more like the aircraft, so it must be better.” Research the topic and reference peer-reviewed sources in your discussion. Hunt Library is an excellent place to search.
Classmate post that you need to post comment/ review on :
Full motion and high-fidelity simulators are highly valuable technical tools that are constructed to replicate aircraft systems and artificially recreate the flight environment for the purpose of training. These types of simulators are beneficial to the aviation industry because they are designed to merge man and machine in order to conduct training, transfer skills, and enhance flight proficiency. With that in mind, the design of a full flight simulator successfully encompasses all elements critical in evaluating human limitation and capabilities (human factors and faculties associated with crew resource management). The fundamental design of a simulator is centered around both physiological and physical elements that engage imperative human functions during flight training. These specific functions directly impact the effectiveness of the simulators training on operator experience.
Having said that, as modest flight training devices can certainly provide useful training instruction, it is unlikely that they will provide the same benefits that high-fidelity simulators provide. Full-flight simulators were created to enhance training in applied aerodynamics (aerodynamics and performance) and replicate a realistic flight environment that provide platforms of safety for high-risk training procedures deemed unsafe in real-life air operations. Reduced-fidelity simulators are less likely to replicate such realistic flight environments and offer the same degree of â€œrealismâ€ in comparison to high-fidelity simulators, which overall, can lead to safety issues (Williges et al., 2001).
When we look at such items like advance aviation training devices (AATD) and basic aviation training devices (BATD), these systems must first have the appropriate components, such as software or hardware (or both), in order to effectively meet Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) guidelines for approved flight training. If such conditions are met, they can offer beneficial training for manual flight training such as instrument approaches and landings (Williges et al., 2001). Additionally, the applications of CRM can also be taught within various fidelity simulators as commercial airlines, like United Airlines, have been using training simulators to teach flight crews how to manage factors of CRM (communication, decision-making skills, situational awareness, leadership, etc.) while learning operational procedures during simulated flight mishaps for the past 30 years. This demonstrates that CRM skills can be taught despite having lesser-technologies (full-motion, high resolution visual simulators). In the past few years, United Airlines had upgraded their flight training systems with the 2018 opening of the Denver state-of-the-art flight training center, aiming to benefit from high-fidelity simulators. This fully consolidated flight training center has more than 30 simulators and has trained government agencies as well as two dozen other airline pilots. In addition to flight training, the center also offers emergency training for flight attendants and maintenance personnel (Black, 2018)