The Electronic Structure Of Atoms

The blue color of the sky results from the scattering of sunlight by air molecules. The blue light has a frequency of about 7.5 × 1014 Hz. (a) Calculate the wavelength, in nm, associated with this radiation, and (b) calculate the energy, in joules, of a single photon associated with this frequency. (8 points)

2. (a) What is an energy level? Explain the difference between ground state and excited state. (b) What are emission spectra: How do line spectra differ from continuous spectra?   (6 points)

3. Explain the statement, Matter and radiation have “dual nature.” (3 points)

4.  Which of the four quantum numbers (n, ℓ, mℓ, ms) determine (a) the energy of an electron in a hydrogen atom and in a many-electron atom, (b) the size of an orbital, (c) the shape of an orbital, (d) the orientation of an orbital in space. (4 points)

5. Determine the maximum number of electrons that can be found in each of the following subshells: 3s, 3d, 4p, 4f. (2 points)

6. How many electrons would fill the third energy level (n = 3)? (2 points)

7. Explain the meaning of the symbol 4d6. (2 points)

8. For each of the following pairs of subshells, indicate which is higher in energy: (a) 2s or 2p, (b) 3d or 4p, (c) 4s or 4p, (d) 3d or 4s. (4 points)

9. Explain the meaning of diamagnetic and paramagnetic. Give an example of an element that is diamagnetic and one that is paramagnetic. What does it mean when we say that electrons are paired? (3 points)

10. Write the ground-state electron configurations for the following elements: (12 points)

11. The electron configuration of a neutral atom is 1s22s22p63s2. Name the element. (2 points)

12. A 368 g sample of water absorbs infrared radiation at 1.06 × 104 nm from a carbon dioxide laser. Suppose all the absorbed radiation is converted to heat. Calculate the number of photons at this wavelength required to raise the temperature of the water by 5.00ºC.  (4 points)

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