Tailor Johnson, a U.S. maker of fine menswear, has a subsidiary in Ethiopia. This year, the subsidiary reported and repatriated earnings before interest and taxes (EBIT) of 228 million Ethiopian birrs. The current exchange rate is 7.0669 birrs/dollar or Upper S equals $ 0.1415 divided by birr. The Ethiopian tax rate on this activity is 22 %. U.S. tax law requires Tailor Johnson to pay taxes on the Ethiopian earnings at the same rate as on profits earned in the United States, which is currently 42 %. However, the United States gives a full tax credit for foreign taxes paid up to the amount of the U.S. tax liability. What is Tailor Johnson’s U.S. tax liability on its Ethiopian subsidiary?
Petron Corporation’s management team is meeting to decide on a new corporate strategy. There are four options, each with a different probability of success and total firm value in the event of success, as shown here: LOADING…. Assume that for each strategy, firm value is zero in the event of failure. Also, suppose Petron Corp. must pay a 25 % tax rate on the amount of the final payoff that is paid to equity holders. It pays no tax on payments to, or capital raised from, debt holders.
a. Which strategy will Petron choose with no debt? Which will it choose with a face value of $ 10 million, $ 32 million, or $ 54 million in debt? (Assume management maximizes the value of equity, and in the case of ties, will choose the safer strategy.)
b. Given your answer to (a), show that the total combined value of Petron’s equity and debt is maximized with a face value of $ 54 million in debt.
c. Show that if Petron has $ 32 million in debt outstanding, shareholders can gain by increasing the face value of debt to $ 54 million, even though this will reduce the total value of the firm.
d. Show that if Petron has $ 54 million in debt outstanding, shareholders will lose by buying back debt to reduce the face value of debt to $ 32 million, even though that will increase the total value of the firm.