Evaluate how technological advances are influencing emergency response in the EOP.

Alabama Emergency Operation Plan


October 8, 2019


Alabama Emergency Operations Plan (AEOP) was created to handle emergency situations natural or man-made.

It provides guidelines for incident:





Disasters can occur at any given point in time. History has repeatedly shown the power of nature and havoc that it has created over time. Since the advancement of technology, these disasters have only increased in number. In order to prevent the state of Alabama from such disasters and minimize the loss in case of unavoidable situations, a plan is developed. This plan is present in all states of the U.S. so as to be prepared in case any problem occurs. Not only does it include the prevention techniques but it also elaborately discusses the mitigation and recovery from such an incident. Moreover, it provides explicit guidelines for the responding team. Through this plan, resources can be used most efficiently and effectively as well. The responsibilities of government bodies are also discussed. It further mentions the co-ordination of the emergency management plan of the local, state and federal government.


Emergency Management Organizations

Federal Organization

State Policies must comply with the Federal Policies

State Organizations

Alabama Emergency Management Act (AEMA)

Alabama Department of Homeland Security (ALDHS)

On a federal scale, there are policies present which every state must follow in order to mitigate and be prepared for any hazard that might occur. Planning, training and all kinds of funding are provided by the federal organization to the Alabama State in order to ensure that the policies are understood. Within the state, there are many organizations which work together in order to reduce the risks of disasters that might happen. They also help in mitigating those risks, work with the resources available and reduce its impact as much as possible. And if in the worst case scenario, a disaster does happen, the state organizations work together. AEMA is a bill which compels the governor of the state to coordinate with the local as well as the state bodies in order to respond to an incident which may have occurred or will occur in the future. Initially the state government must try to resolve the issues in the incident themselves and through the local bodies but if they fail to do so, they must seek assistance from the federal government and its organizations.

ALDHS was created in order to prevent any terrorist attacks from happening in the state of Alabama. Not only does it prevent attacks but provides immediate response to any terrorist attack or threat (EOP, 2012).

Moreover, any agency part of the state can be called for help in times of need on the orders of the Governor of the state (EOP, 2012).


Emergency Management Organizations

Local Organizations

Creation of local bodies for disaster management

Assessed for their capabilities and available resources

Coordination must exist between local bodies and federal government


Organizations willing to help in mitigating, reducing and preparing for a hazard.

When a disaster strikes a state, it takes a lot of effort to mitigate through it and eventually recover from the situation. Therefore, it takes a lot of resources and manpower in order to overcome these kind of situations. The state government must create a local body which will help in case of a disaster and will help in the mitigation of the risk. Every local body is assigned to their tasks according to the resources which are available to them. They are also assessed on the basis of their capabilities. It is important that every local body must coordinate with the state government in order to ensure every operation is up to mark and complies with the policies of the State (EOP, 2012).

There are many private organizations which have the resources, manpower and capabilities to help in an emergency situation. They must provide relief to the local citizens on a complimentary basis as well as supplementary basis. The relief that they provide cannot be received by the citizens through any government body or agency. Private or volunteer organizations must always cooperate with the state and must comply to the rules and regulations of the country (EOP, 2012).


Roles And Responsibilities

On Federal Scale:

Secretary of National Homeland Security has the role of coordinating the resources and operations

NHS and FEMA plan and operate on the mitigation, planning, training, educating the people.

Federal Governing Officer and State Governing Officer work together in order to handle emergency situations

On a federal scale Secretary of National Homeland Security is responsible for coordinating the resources and managing them in case of any emergency situation, be it, a natural disaster, a terrorist attack or any other hazard which puts the citizens at risk. This occurs when the disaster has overwhelmed the local and state government and the situation can no longer be controlled by internal procedures (EOP, 2012).

In such situations, NHS and FEMA coordinate in order to ensure that the citizens are well aware and educated about the situation they will or have already encountered. They come up with strategies in order to mitigate and reduce the impact of disaster happening in the world. They educate the people and provide trainings. They help the state governments in designing the National Response Framework.

If the President declares the situation of a state as an emergency, the Governor must appoint a State Governing Officer who will coordinate with the Federal Governing Officer to receive the assistance and resources required to handle the emergency situation.


Roles And Responsibilities

On State Scale:

Governor must ensure that all commands and procedures are followed through. Any economic situations must be handled by the Governor. Moreover, the Governor will also act as the Commander in Chief of the army or military personnel.

Director of AEMA must coordinate with AHLS and advise the Governor. They must also arrange for all resources required.

The Governor of the State must be at all times prepared for a disaster or emergency situation to occur. They must ensure that all the commands declared by the NHS, AEMA and the Federal Government are complied to. If there is any economic instability before or during the hazard, it is important that the Governor handles it according to the laws and regulations of the country. In case the military is involved, the Governor may act as the Commander in Chief od the miliatry personnel.

The Director of AEMA must work together with AHLS. They must advise the Governor for their next move. In order to be prepared, they must be able to arrange all man power and resources which are required to handle the emergency situations.


Roles And Responsibilities

Private Organizations

Provide relief, shelter, medical assistance or any other possible support to the victims of the disaster.

Local Government

Receive assistance only when their resources and strategies are exhausted.

Must coordinate and update the state government at all times.

Planning and agreements must be done beforehand.

In such scenarios the members and owners of private organizations are very useful. Any kind of aid that they can provide for the emergency can be very useful. They must provide relief, shelter, medical assistance, food and other such help to those who have suffered in the hands of the hazard.

Local Governments must do everything they can in order to prevent and mitigate the disaster that has occurred in the state. They must only request the aid of the state when they have exhausted all their options and none remains. As soon as a hazard starts, they must inform the state government. They must coordinate and provide the state government with constant updates in order to prevent any miscommunication. Moreover, they must keep the government updated about the availability of the resources. Local bodies must be trained and should train others for the emergency situation that might occur.


All-Hazards Approach

Developing capabilities and capacities for hard times

Define emergencies

Identify problems

Identify impact of problems

Rank those problems

The All-Hazards Approach does not mean that every detail must be defined to the minutest details. Instead, it means that a state develops capabilities in order to cater to emergency situations which may or may not occur at a certain point in time. The basic step to achieve this is through defining all the situations which can be certified as “emergencies”. All the problems which can happen, things which can go wrong and cause problems for the mass can be identified as an emergency. Next, it must be identified that whether the problem will create a large impact on the people or environment. Then as per the situation, all the problems must be ranked according to their intensity.


All-Hazards Approach

Plan an action for the hazard mitigation

Define roles and responsibilities

Create procedure

Test & Implement those procedure

Execute the plan

Regularly update plans

Communicate & Train

Clearly define roles, responsibilities

Take regular follow ups

It is important to have an action planned out before the situation occurs or even if it has already happened, a plan must be made in order to handle the situation. The most important part of the plan is to identify which people suit for what job and delegating them their responsibilities accordingly. After this, policies and regulations must be made in order to ensure that the operation occurs successfully. The procedure must be tested initially in smaller situations in order to make sure that there is no problem in conducting it. Then it must be implemented properly. The plan must be executed. It should always be remembered that the plan is never final and some situations demand different things which is why it is important to update the plan regularly.

All members of the organizations must be trained properly and they must have clear roles so that no two people get confused. Moreover, follow ups must be taken from everyone in order to ensure that everything runs smoothly (EOP, 2012).


Available Resources & Public Policy

Natural resources such as petroleum, water and others must be managed accordingly.

Manpower is the most important resource, it must be used wisely.

Finances must be managed wisely and vigilantly.

All hazards policy is in compliance with the public policy

Natural resources are hard to come by and are expensive as well. This is why it is important to understand that they cannot be wasted and should be used accordingly. In the times of an emergency, resources such as petroleum, water, gas and others are harder to acquire which is why it is the responsibility of the state to manage them properly and not waste them without cause. Manpower is very important in hazardous situations which is why it must be delegated according to the situation. People should not be burdened with tasks they cannot accomplish but should be used according to their potential. People must be managed properly and accurately. In order to avoid bankruptcy and financial crisis, the government must be careful from the beginning of a disaster and must spend the money accordingly. The All-Hazard Policy complies with the public policy. It treats human life above all else and prevents it from being lost or hurt in any way (EOP, 2012).



Detailed policy as well as report exists which must be followed.

Government, local bodies and the State must do their part to minimize problems

Human lives are the biggest resource and must be saved and protected at all times

Coordination must be present amongst all government bodies and the citizens to minimize impact.


Alabama Emergency Management Agency(2017). Retrieved fromhttps://ema.alabama.gov/state-of-alabama-emergency-operations-plan/ State of Alabama

Emergency Operations Plan(2012). Retrieved from https://alabamaema.files.wordpress.com/2017/11/alabama-eop-11-basic-plan-final.pdf

Alexander, D. (2015). Disaster and Emergency Planning for Preparedness, Response, and Recovery. Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Natural Hazard Science. doi:10.1093/acrefore/9780199389407.013.12


Assignment Instructions!!!

( Alabama Emergency Operation Plan)

As you continue your work as a new EM, your task this week will be to evaluate the emergency operations plan (EOP) for your local community. Continue to use the same EOP identified in Week Two to complete the following task.

Create a 12- to 15-slide Microsoft® PowerPoint® presentation with detailed speaker notes in which you:

· Analyze the operational readiness of the organization in the EOP.

· Evaluate how technological advances are influencing emergency response in the EOP.

· Analyze the resources available to emergency management organizations in the EOP.

· Analyze the strengths and weaknesses of the EOP.

Cite 3 peer-reviewed, scholarly, or similar references to support your presentation.

Format your presentation according to APA guidelines. Include a title page, detailed speaker notes, and a references page.

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